In this paper we explore race and ethnic health inequalities in Colombia. We first characterize the situation of Afro-Colombians and indigenous populations in Colombia. Second, we document racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes and access to health care using data from the Living Standards Survey and the evaluation of the “Familias en Acción” program. Third, we set up a statistical model that allows us to test whether some of the health inequalities that are observed still remain after controlling for a wide range of individual and household observed characteristics, including access to health care. The results indicate that most racial and ethnic disparities in health and access to health care disappear once we control for socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, employment status and characteristics of the job and geographic location among other things. Based on these findings we make some specific policy recommendations aimed at improving the status of racial minorities in Colombia.